The Company operates a number of equity-settled, share-based compensation plans that are awarded to employees of the Company's subsidiary undertakings.

In accordance with FRS 101 'Group and treasury share transactions', the fair value of the employee services received under such schemes is recognised as an expense in the subsidiary undertaking's financial statements, which benefit from the employee services. The Company has recognised the fair value of the share-based payments as an increase to equity with a corresponding adjustment to investments.

Fair values are determined using appropriate option pricing models. The total fair value recognised is adjusted to reflect the number of awards for which the related service and non-market vesting conditions are expected to be met, such that the amount ultimately recognised as an expense is based on the number of awards that do meet the related service and non-market performance conditions at the vesting date.

At each balance sheet date, the Company revises its estimates of the number of share incentives that are expected to vest. The impact of the revision of original estimates, if any, is recognised as an adjustment to equity, with a corresponding adjustment to investments, over the remaining vesting period.